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   2014| December  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since December 21, 2017

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Effects of parity on antioxidant status in pregnant women in a Nigerian population
AA Amballi, SO Oyedeji, EO Ogunyemi, AB Adeyemi, JI Anetor, FA Adenaike
December 2014, 5(2):83-91
Background: Controversial reports on the effects of multiparity on pregnancy outcome have been documented in literature. While some authors have strongly supported the popular belief that multiparity is associated with complicated pregnancy outcome, others have claimed that there is no association. Moreover, little or no information has been documented about the effect of multiparity on antioxidant status of pregnant women in Nigeria. This is the purpose of this study. Methods: The study involved a total of one hundred and fourteen (114) subjects which were randomly selected, this comprises of thirty seven (37) non pregnant women as control subjects and seventy seven (77) pregnant women as test subjects, with different parity status and all within the ages 15-50 years. All the subjects had normal blood pressure (not more than 125/80mmHg).The test subjects were all in the third trimester with no underlying disease and not on any chronic drug therapy. They were grouped into five groups according to their parity status. Plasma estimations of their vitamin C, vitamin E, albumin, uric acid, selenium, copper, and zinc were determined; and the control group results compared with the test group results. The results showed that the albumin concentration of the test group was significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.001), and amongst the test sub –groups the albumin was significantly reduced in the multipara (P<0.001). Results: The reverse was observed for plasma uric acid, where there was an increase in the test group than the control (P<0.001) and the increase was more in the multipara in the test group. For the vitamins; Plasma vitamin E concentration was significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group and the decrease was more as parity increased. However, vitamin C in all the six groups (control group and all the test subgroups) was not significantly different from one another (P<0.149). For the minerals (trace elements); copper showed no statistically significant difference (P<0.143) among the groups. Selenium concentration was observed to be significantly decreased (P<0.001) in the test group than the control and the decrease was more in the multipara. Lastly, zinc was obviously less in test group than control group and the reduction was more as parity increased (P<0.001). Conclusion: Conclusively, the results indicated that pregnancy significantly reduced the serum levels of some of the antioxidants such as albumin, vitamin E, selenium and zinc. The reduction in each of these analytes was more pronounced in multiparity than in low parity or primip and this is an indication that multiparity causes more oxidative stress. While vitamin C and copper levels were not significantly affected by pregnancy or multipartiy, uric acid level increased in pregnancy and this increase was more in multipara than in low parity or primp. The increase in uric acid however may be due to effect of pregnancy or multiparity on the kidney. It is suggested from the findings of this study that food supplements rich in antioxidant substances (vitamin E, albumin, zinc, and selenium) will be beneficial in pregnancy, especially in the multiparous, this may reduce oxidative stress and hence reduce complications of pregnancy as well as reduce maternal mortality, hence improve safe motherhood.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Prevalence of seropositive blood donors for hepatitis B, C and HIV viruses at Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria
OD Kassim, TO Oyekale, JC Aneke, MA Durosinmi
December 2014, 5(2):67-76
Background: Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections constitute immense burden in developing countries including Nigeria with wide variability in the prevalence of co-infection and clinical syndromes in various regions. Objectives: This study set out, to determine the prevalence rate of these infections and their various co-infections among the blood donors at the Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti and to determine the more vulnerable age-group in this region. Methods: From July 2007 to July 2009, 662 donors were studied. Blood samples taken from the donors were screened for HIV and HCV antibodies by double ELISA technique, and for HbsAg by ELISA technique. Data entry and processing were done using EPI-INFO version 6 and SPSS version 15. Data were compared using 2-tailed chi-square test and Yates correction or Fisher exact test when applicable. Probability value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Overall, 7.9% of the donors were sero-positive for HbsAg, 7.3% for HCV antibody and 5% for HIV antibody. Co-infection rate of HIV/HCV was 1.1%, HIV/HBV was 1.2%, HBV/HCV was 2.1% and HIV/HBV/HCV was 0.6%. The age-group 20-30 years had the highest prevalence for HCV (17.9%), HBV/HCV co-infection (2.4%) and HIV/HBV/HCV infection (1.2%). Up to 57.6% of HIV infected blood donors have co-infection with either HBV or HCV or both. Conclusion: This study detected a high prevalence rate of HBV, HCV and HIV infections among Ido-Ekiti blood donors. All co-infections were detected at lower rate compared to single infections. The age-group 20-30 years were the most vulnerable group to these infections. A high percentage of HIV sero-positive donors had other co-infections. Adequate screening of blood donors and widespread awareness programme on these infections especially among the youth, immunization against HBV are mandatory in curtailing these infections. Follow-up incidence study in this field is recommended.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Inflammatory cervical smears and infection in Kano, Northern Nigeria
Ochicha Ochicha, Aminu Z Mohammed, Zakari Mohammed, Sani A Malami, Hamisu Takalmawa
December 2014, 5(2):77-82
Background: Inflammation is commonly present in cervical smears for screening of pre-malignant lesions, so we undertook this study to identify microbial pathogens responsible for the inflammation. Method: This was a prospective study of cervical smears and endocervical swabs from patients at the gynaecology, postnatal and general outpatient clinics of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital over a 4 month period. Results: A total of 421 women between the ages of 17 and 80 years were recruited for the study, but most (95%) were premenopausal (<50 years). Two hundred and thirteen (50.6%) of the smears were inflammatory as evidenced by prominent neutrophilic infiltrate, but only 127 (30%) of the study patients had infection as demonstrated by microbial growth on culture and positive Chlamydia antigen test. Sixty one percent (78 cases) of the 127 cervical infections occurred among the 213 patients with inflamed smears. The remaining 39% (49 cases) of cervical infections occurred in patients with non-inflammatory smears. Chlamydia and candida were the most frequent microbes accounting for 68.5% of all cervical infections. Thirty nine (8.7%) of all smears were dysplastic with low grade dysplasia comprising the overwhelming majority – 35 cases. Conclusion: As in most published studies, cervical inflammation did not correlate with infection, as infection also commonly occurs in patients without inflammatory smears. This renders patient management problematic for gynaecologists. Further research is therefore required to clarify the microbial and non-microbial causes of cervico-vaginal inflammation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Burden of anaemia among In- and Out-Patients at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
AS Adewoyin, GN Bazuaye, E Enabudoso
December 2014, 5(2):93-99
Background: On a global scale, anaemia is a significant public health problem. Most affected are developing nations including Nigeria. Anaemia, in form of low haematocrit, is the commonest haematology laboratory feature among hospital patients. It is useful as an indicator and monitor of disease burden and overall treatment outcomes in the community and hospitals. Objectives: This study seeks to evaluate the overall prevalence, distribution and severity of anaemia among patients and clients receiving care from different units at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Methodology: This study is a descriptive, retrospective study conducted at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Patients' haematocrit documented in various laboratory units in the hospital over a six months period were retrieved, collated and analysed. Anaemia was defined by haemoglobin levels less than 11g/dl (haematocrit less than 33%). Results were presented in tables, frequency counts and percentages. Result: The overall prevalence of anaemia was determined to be 27.3%. Most cases of anaemia were mild to moderate in severity. In-patients had a higher burden of anaemia. The most severe forms occurred among patients seen at the Accident and Emergency Unit. Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia among hospital patients is high. Its treatment and control is crucial to improving general health among patients and the community at large. As such, sustainable efforts should be directed at its control in order to reduce its attendant health and socio-economic implications.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Serum levels of fructosamine in healthy non-diabetic Nigerians
Isah Adagiri Yahaya
December 2014, 5(2):107-114
Objectives: Fructosamine (glycated serum proteins) was estimated in 255 healthy non-diabetic Nigerians. This was aimed at developing a new reference interval (RI) for this intermediate-term index of glycaemic control. The RI that is currently in- use in most laboratories across Nigeria were either wrongly derived or are values derived in other countries of the world. Methodology: Fructosamine was estimated using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay method as evaluated by Isah in 1990. Random blood glucose, albumin, total proteins and total bilirubin were also measured in all the participants by routine laboratory methods. Non-parametric method was employed for the determination of RI for fructosamine. The new RI for fructosamine was 0.7-1.8 mmol/L as against the RI ( 0.9-1.8 mmol/L) currently in-use. Results: This study showed a difference in the 2.5th percentile value between male and female participants. Fructosamine also showed positive correlation with glucose, total proteins and albumin. No correlation was observed between fructosamine and total bilirubin. Conclusion: This study described a new reference interval for fructosamine in our indigenous population.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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A 20 year histopathological review of cancer of the oesophagus in Jos, Central Nigeria
BM Mandong, JA Ngbea, AJK Madaki
December 2014, 5(2):101-106
Background: Oesophageal cancer believed to be rare in Africa is now assuming prominence in cancer incidence. Studies in some parts of the world showed that Blacks are at higher risk of oesophageal cancer than non-Blacks. Aim: Is to describe the pattern of distribution of oesophageal cancer in our environment. The study will provide the basis for further epidemiological studies. Material and Methods: This was a hospital based study. Records of histologically confirmed cases of oesophageal cancer over a period of twenty years were analysed. The sex and age of the individual patients were obtained from the referral forms. Results: There were a total of 33 cases of oesophageal carcinoma recorded during the study period. This accounted for 1.3% of total cancer over the same period and 7.1% of gastrointestinal cancers. Out of the 33 cases, 22 (67%) were squamous cell carcinoma and 11(33%) were adenocarcinoma. Twenty five were males and 8 females with a male, female ratio of 3:1. Majority of the patients presented with the clinical symptoms of oesophagitis, severe dysphagia and weight loss. Conclusion The study showed that carcinoma of the oesophagus affects males predominantly. Adenocarcinoma occurred in high proportion similar to reported cases from countries of America and Europe.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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