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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| December  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since December 27, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cytological determination of condensed sex chromatin body in buccal smear and peripheral blood film using various nuclear staining techniques
Victor J Ekanem, Lilian E Chris-Ozoko, Peace O Abade
December 2012, 3(2):133-137
Background Buccal smear and blood film examination for identification of condensed sex chromatin body is still being requested in hospitals in Nigeria for various reasons. Different hospitals use different staining techniques to aid in the identification. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the staining techniques that best identify the presence of sex chromatin among some commonly available dyes and also the usefulness of the method to the clinician. Method: One hundred and sixty – two apparently healthy female medical and medical laboratory students were recruited for the study. Buccal smear and blood film from the students were stained with cresyl violet, giemsa, papanicolaou and Haematoxylin and Eosin staining and leishman techniques. The slides were examined for the purpose of identifying the presence of sex chromatin body using light microscopy. The total number of barr bodies and drumsticks seen were recorded for each stain. Results: The highest number of barr bodies were seen in 47 (29%) slides out of the 162 slides stained with cresyl violet and examined for the presence of barr bodies, while slides stained with papanicolaou stain, Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin show the present of barr bodies in 41 (25.3%), 35 (21.6%) and 10 (6.2%) slides respectively. One hundred and twenty one blood films were examined with drum sticks seen in 50 (30.9%) of the slides examined. Conclusion: None of the stains used can best identify the presence of barr body in buccal smear. The usefulness of this test to the clinician is doubtful. A combination of buccal smear with blood film is therefore necessary to improve the diagnosis where other advance method of diagnosis is not available.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,612 203 -
Plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide reference values in subjects without heart disease
IA Yahaya, OO Aliu-Isah, KM Karaye
December 2012, 3(2):105-111
Background: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its terminal fragment (NTproBNP) are released from ventricular cardiomyocytes in response to increase in ventricular wall stress and to myocardial ischaemia. Both BNP and NT-proBNP have been described as reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with heart failure. There are no previous reports on the reference values for both markers in the Nigerian population ; an essential pre-requisite for effective utilization of the biomarkers in the management of the indigenous patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the upper reference value for NT-proBNP in apparently healthy Nigerian adults with neither cardiovascular nor renal disease. Subjects and methods: A group of 34 subjects were recruited into the study; equally divided between the sexes. They were aged between 19 and 42 years. Subjects' blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Plasma NT-proBNP was analysed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method on elecsys 2010 machine, while creatinine and blood glucose were measured by routine methods. Results: The mean values for BMI, plasma glucose, creatinine clearance, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure were 21.2 kg/m2, 4.1 mmol/L, 91.2 ml/min, 119 mmHg, 79 mmHg respectively. The mean concentration of NT-proBNP in males and females were 24.7 pg/ml and 32.5 pg/ml respectively, while the upper reference value for NT-proBNP was found to be 99.5 pg/ml. Conclusion: We therefore suggest that NT-proBNP values below 100 pg/ml be considered as the cut-off point for normal ventricular function or structure in our clinical setting.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  716 73 -
Serum C-reactive protein and cholesterol as predictors of severity in childhood Falciparum malaria infestation among Nigerians
SA Biliaminu, AO Shittu, LO Olatunbosun, IM Abdul-Azeez, MA Sani, AB Okesina, AA Akande, KO Omokanye, LS Ojulari
December 2012, 3(2):91-96
Background: C-Reactive-Protein (CRP) is regarded as one of the most sensitive indicators of acute inflammation and its concentration often increases or decreases by about 2%. Although CRP is a nonspecific marker of inflammation, very high CRP levels are observed during attacks of malaria. CRP is a good positive predictive indicator for the diagnosis of malaria and is also useful in epidemiological studies on malaria. Depletion of red cell cholesterol has no detectable effect on major red cell membrane function but can block malaria invasion. Malaria parasite count on peripheral blood film has been reported not to be indicative of an acute infestation, thus highlighting the need for an alternative indicator of acute malarial infestation. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 paediatric subjects were randomly recruited for the study from among those diagnosed routinely in the Haematology Laboratory of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital of acute malaria. They were grouped into those with mild, moderate and severe malaria with 40 persons in each group. Their samples were further subjected to tests for malaria density, CRP and cholesterol levels determination. Results: The mean ages of our subjects with mild, moderate and severe malaria were 10.3±1.5 years, 7.1±2.2 years and 3.8±1.3 years respectively. Serum CRP levels significantly increases while that of cholesterol significantly reduces with increase in parasite scoring and absolute count (p values <0.005). Also the levels of serum CRP correlated positively while that of cholesterol correlated negatively with parasite scoring and count. Conclusion: In conclusion, serum C-reactive protein can be said to be a good indicator of the severity of malaria in our environment although it is not routinely done. Cholesterol level which correlated negatively with parasite density, can also serve as an indicator of severity of falciparum malaria infestation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  662 99 -
An analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics of ovarian tumours in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
D Sabageh, OO Olaofe, AO Sabageh
December 2012, 3(2):97-104
Background: Ovarian tumours are a diverse and complex group of neoplasms. They occur in women of all ages and are notorious for their infrequently large sizes. Determination of the various histological patterns is important for treatment and prognostication. This study attempts to analyze the various clinicopathological characteristics of benign and malignant ovarian tumours and compare these with what is known in other parts of the world. Methods: The surgical specimens of patients with ovarian tumours sent to the Histopathology Department of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria within a 5-year period constituted the materials for the study. Results: The overall mean age at presentation for the 69 ovarian tumours was 34.8 years (SD±15.3) while the age range was from 1 to 80 years. The highest frequency of cases was seen in the 21-30 year age-group. Majority of tumours (75.3%) occurred between 21 and 50 years. Benign tumours accounted for majority of cases (69.6%). Majority of the tumours (78.3%) showed a predominantly cystic appearance. Surface epithelial (43.4%) and germ cell tumours (40.6%) were the most frequent tumours encountered. Malignant surface epithelial tumours were most prevalent within the 41-50 year age group. The mean age at presentation was higher for malignant than benign serous tumours (p<0.05) while the mean age at presentation was lower for benign than for malignant mucinous tumours (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean diameters for benign and malignant epithelial tumours. Malignant germ cell tumours occurred only in young girls. Conclusion: Overall the age distribution and histological patterns of the ovarian tumours seen were similar to what has been reported in other parts of the world although malignant epithelial tumours in our series tended to occur at a slightly younger age.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  658 102 -
CASE REPORT
Alteration of ABH blood group antigens in a patient with acute leukaemia
T Olutogun, O Aworanti, T Kotila
December 2012, 3(2):139-141
The loss or weakening of an individual's blood group due to disease is a rare phenomenon, which occurs more with myeloid malignancies. We report here the loss of the A antigen in an 18 year old boy treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a combination of Cyclophosphomide, Oncovin, Cytosine Arabinoside and predisolone. At first hospital admission he was typed as AB RhD positive but four months later he was typed as B RhD positive.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  672 73 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Survey of users' perceptions of clinical microbiology laboratory services in Nigeria
AM Efunshile, A Fowotade, OB Makanjuola, EI O Oyediran, OO Olusanya, B Koenig
December 2012, 3(2):125-131
Background: The Clinical Microbiology laboratory is expected to adequately measure and monitor its performance by actively and routinely soliciting from its clients their level of satisfaction with services received and use the information to develop processes that meet customer's needs. This survey was done in order to objectively identify some of the challenges faced by laboratory end users in Nigeria with a view to proffering feasible solutions to such problems. Methods: Semi –structured, pre-tested Questionnaires administered to laboratory users in 2 teaching hospitals in Nigeria to find out their level of satisfaction with various aspects of laboratory services. One is a Federal Government hospital with 620 bed spaces and 7 full time Consultant Clinical Microbiologists while the other hospital is owned by State Government and has 280 bed spaces, 1 full time plus 2 visiting Consultant Clinical Microbiologists. Results: There is a general low level customer satisfaction observed in this study. Only 27.8% and 5.4% of respondents from UCH and LTH respectively agreed that laboratory user's handbook was available while about 38.3% and 22.5% respectively agreed that laboratory turnaround time was satisfactory. Respondents from UCH and LTH who agreed that it was easy to obtain expert advice from Consultant Clinical Microbiologists were 45.1% and 20.2% respectively. About 94.7% and 88.8% of respondents from UCH and LTH respectively agreed that request forms were easy to fill while 76.7% and 68.5% respectively agreed that expert advice obtained from Consultant Clinical Microbiologists were helpful in the management of their patients. Discussion, conclusion and recommendation: The general low level of customer satisfaction observed from the 2 hospitals may be attributable to the general inadequate health workforce and infrastructure in Nigeria where the government spend only 6.4% of its annual budget on health which is far below expectation. The particularly lower level of customer satisfaction in LTH may be due to the fact that there is only one full time Clinical Microbiologist in the in the laboratory. These laboratories can make the best out of the situation at hand by improving their communication with the users so as to make them appreciate the actual cost of tests and time required to generate results.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  611 79 -
Nutritional status in patients with HIV infection and aids in a tertiary health centre in Nigeria
R Yusuf, IS Aliyu, HM Muktar, A Hassan, SA Akuyam, A Shehu, PO Anaja
December 2012, 3(2):113-118
Background: Nutritional status may be an important factor in the prognosis of morbidity and mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-seropositive individuals. HIV-positive individuals are prone to malnutrition due to inadequate dietary intake, especially in under developed countries like Nigeria where 70 % of the population is estimated to be living on or below the poverty line. In addition, stigmatization and discrimination results in a lack of support for HIV-positive individuals, ultimately contributing to further reduced food availability and inadequate dietary intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional status using laboratory parameters and body mass index (BMI) in HIV-seropositive patients in Zaria, Nigeria. Methodology: Serum total cholesterol, glucose, total protein, albumin, total calcium and phosphorus in a cross sectional study of 150 HIV-positive patients (100 on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and 50 ARV naïve) and 50 controls were assessed. BMI of all the volunteers was calculated. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Two-tailed student×s t-test for matched samples, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's linear correlation were employed for the analysis. A p d″ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Significantly lower (p< 0.05) values of serum total cholesterol, glucose, total protein, albumin and BMI were observed among ARV naïve patients. Hypoalbuminaemia was recorded in 30 % and 34 % of patients on treatment and naïve respectively. Also 20 % and 12 % of ARV naïve patients had hypocholesterolaemia and hypoglycaemia respectively. Based on BMI, 7 % of patients on treatment and 32 % of ARV naïve were malnourished. Conclusion: Malnutrition is common among HIV-positive patients in Zaria, Nigeria.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  550 83 -
An analysis of the pathological features of the vermiform appendix removed for acute appendicitis in a Tertiary Health Centre in Nigeria
KN Ezike, D Sabageh, OC Okafor, OS Ojo
December 2012, 3(2):119-124
Aim: To analyze the gross and microscopic features of acute appendicitis as seen in the histopathology department of a Nigerian tertiary health institution. Methods: The appendices of patients histologically diagnosed as acute appendicitis were used for this study. The diameter of the appendix, gross serosal features and the luminal contents were assessed. The presence or absence of mucosal microabscesses and periappendicitis were also assessed. These were all analyzed for differences in proportion using Chi square by SPSS version 16 (p is significant at <.05). Results: Acute appendicitis accounted for 76.2% of all appendicectomy specimens received. The mean age was 25.3 years while the age range was between 4 and 67 years and the male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The highest frequency of cases was in the 21-30 year age group. The diameter of the appendix was greater than 0.8cm in about 88.2% of cases. The association between the diameter of the appendix and the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was, however, not statistically significant. The most frequent luminal finding were faecaliths (55.6%) although a large proportion of lumina were empty (33.6%). No helminths were seen. The serosa of the appendix was shiny, dull and fibrinous/purulent in 14.7%, 39.0% and 46.3% of cases respectively. A statistically significant association was noted between these serosal appearances and the occurrence of periappendicitis. Periappendicitis was noted in 76.1% of cases where mucosal microabscesses were observed. This association was also statistically significant. Conclusion: Although acute appendicitis is still the most common disorder of the appendix, there has been a shift in the peak age of occurrence at our centre from adolescence to early adulthood. A statistically significant association exists between the occurrence of peritonitis and the gross appearance of the serosa as well as with the presence of mucosal microabscesses but not with the diameter of the appendix.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  563 68 -
CASE REPORT
Perforated bowel from ascariasis: Incidental finding in an adolescent with a penetrating abdominal injury
U Mohammed, MO Samaila
December 2012, 3(2):143-146
A 15year old boy presented to the accident and emergency unit with acute abdomen following penetrating abdominal injury. Emergency exploratory laparatomy revealed penetrating injury to the jejunum, ascaris worm within the peritoneum and ascaris worm milked out of a perforation near the jejuno-duodonal junction. The resected bowel sent to the Pathology laboratory also revealed another worm within the lumen.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  559 61 -
EDITORIAL
The role of the clinical laboratory in the diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis
Omolade Adegoke, Fred John, Fatimah Abdulkareem, Olusegun Ojo
December 2012, 3(2):83-89
Full text not available  [PDF]
  439 93 -