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   2011| December  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since December 27, 2017

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Pattern of pathology report retrieval
AT Atanda, C Obiorah
December 2011, 2(2):27-33
Background: Inefficient laboratory utilization occurs when requests are made and reports are not retrieved. This study aims to determine the pattern of report retrieval in pathology laboratories in Nigeria and ways to improve current practice. Materials and Method: All un-retrieved histopathology and cytopathology reports in histopathology laboratories of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt between January, 2009 and December, 2009 were retrieved from archives. From these, final diagnosis and turn around times were determined. Questionnaires were also distributed to determine reasons for failure to retrieve pathology reports. Results: A total of 1,096 (22%) histology reports and 319 (12%) cytology reports were not retrieved in AKTH while 4% of histology and 20% of cytology reports were not collected in UPTH. The uncollected reports exhibited malignancy or positive resection margins in 14% and 18% of histology reports in AKTH and UPTH respectively and 16% and 18% of cytology reports in AKTH and UPTH respectively. The turnaround time (TAT) for the histology and cytology cases in AKTH were approximately 4 days and 36 hours respectively, and in UPTH 5 days and 3 days respectively in about 80% of cases. Questionnaire respondents (57%), felt histology was associated with long TATs while 51% disagreed that cytology had long TATs. Reasons for failure to collect reports were long TAT (46%); poor awareness by patients (36%) and patient death (28%). Respondents felt the best methods of report dissemination were by laboratory dispatcher (57%) and intranet (31%). Conclusion: This study concludes that optimal pathology laboratory utilization requires constant communication between clinicians and pathologists and shows the need for specific hospital-tailored framework for pathology report retrieval and dissemination.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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The pathological features of lymph node biopsies from the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
CC Obiorah, M Gogo-Abite
December 2011, 2(2):12-19
Aims: Highlighting the types of lymph node disorders in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and the pattern of gender and age group distribution. Materials and methods: Hematoxylin and eosin stained-slides of lymph node biopsies diagnosed in Anatomical Pathology department, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital for 5 years were archived and studied. Lymph nodes accompanying malignant tissues were noted and the slides of the primary lesions and those secondary to lymph nodes were compared for morphologic consistency. The request forms were also analyzed for age, sex, site of lesion and clinical diagnosis. Results: Male: female ratio was 1:1.2. Mean age and range were 29.6 years + 24.1 and 11 months to 80 years respectively. Peak age was 20-39 years. Non-neoplastic lesions with 50.2% were marginally higher than neoplastic ones. The 2 commonest non-neoplastic lesions were non-specific reactive hyperplasia (RH) and tuberculosis (TB) with 22.4% and 16.9% respectively. Metastatic lesions with 59.2% were the commonest cause of lymph node enlargement. Lymphoid malignancies occurred in 40.7%. Cervical lymph node group was the most frequently biopsied. Conclusion
  • Malignant lesions, reactive hyperplasia and tuberculosis were the commonest pathologies of enlarged lymph nodes. Malignant lesions especially metastasis should therefore be considered in lymphadenopathies presenting in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and biopsy of all cases should be encouraged.
  • Provision of immunohistochemistry and other molecular pathology resources in our centre will obviate limitations in pathological studies.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Some Toxicological Parameters in Rats Treated Sub-Chronically With Aqueous Extract of Bryophyllum Pinnatum
Raymond I Ozolua, Edward O Salami, Sylvester E Idogun, Dickson O Uwaya
December 2011, 2(2):5-11
Background: Aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum is gaining popularity because of its many ethnomedicinal uses. The extract is often used for chronic conditions such as hypertension by alternative medical practitioners. Earlier we studied its acute and sub-acute toxicological profile. Here we evaluated its sub-chronic effects on some gross toxicological, biochemical and haematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were used. The animals were given oral doses of 0.5 or 2.5 g/kg/day of the extract for 90 consecutive days. Controls were sham-treated by administering distilled water for the same period. Whole body weight, terminal organ weight, litter number and weight were recorded. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), Na+, K+, creatinine and haematological indices were assayed in the animals. Results: There were no significant differences in weight, organ-to-body weight ratios and litter numbers across the groups but mean litter weight was significantly lower in the extract-treated groups. Values of haematological parameters were also comparable except for a significant decrease in PCV in the 2.5 g/kg/day group. ALT values were significantly reduced in the extract-treated groups but AST values decreased significantly in the 2.5 g/kg/day group. The levels of GGT were significantly elevated in the extracttreated groups. Na+, K+, creatinine and urea levels were comparable across the groups. Conclusion: Sub-chronic administration of high doses of the aqueous leaf extract of B. pinnatum seems to be safe although more data are required to further confirm this.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Plasma concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in metabolic syndrome subjects
EP Odum, VC Wakwe
December 2011, 2(2):19-27
Objectives: Several studies have related deficient plasma levels of fat-soluble vitamins to increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and suggested that optimal levels may reduce the risk and progression of metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to assess the plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D and E in Nigerians with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred metabolic syndrome subjects were recruited into the study; 55% of them had type 2 diabetes. One hundred controls were age- and sexmatched. Blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, vitamins A, D and E were estimated. Results: The mean plasma vitamin E of metabolic syndrome subjects was significantly lower than that of controls (P=0.0001) and also lower in subjects with diabetes than in those without diabetes (P=0.006). The mean plasma vitamins A and D of subjects were similar to that of controls (P=0.231 and 0.391 respectively) and also similar in subjects with and without diabetes (P=0.134 and 0.061 respectively). Mean values of vitamins A, D and E in subjects and vitamins A and D in controls were suboptimal. Conclusion: Plasma vitamin E was lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome than in controls, and vitamins A and D were similar but suboptimal in both groups. This may be due to inadequate vitamin intake, increased oxidative stress and inflammation among other factors.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Inadequate information on request forms for thyroid function tests may affect pathologist's interpretative comments
OA Adegoke, MO Ogundipe, NO Akinola, AA Idowu, OA Jeje, DE Obaseki
December 2011, 2(2):1-3
Full text not available  [PDF]
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