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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 119-122

Indications and diagnostic utility of bone marrow aspiration cytology: A 12-year experience at a tertiary health center in Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria

1 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Gombe State University, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria
2 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
3 Department of Histopathology, Gombe State University, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saleh Yuguda
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Gombe State University, Gombe, Gombe State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/atp.atp_15_20

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Background: Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) cytology is very important in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of both hematological and nonhematological disorders. It has several indications ranging from the evaluation of cytopenias to staging and assessment of remission in the course of management. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the indications and diagnostic utility of BMA cytology at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria. Methodology: A retrospective review of BMA cytology records performed at the department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion of the Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, over a 12-year period from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2017. Results: A total of 596 BMAs were performed over the study period. The age ranges were from 2 months to 88 years, with a median age of 36 years. Majority of the patients were males (61%). The most common indication for the bone marrow examination was for the evaluation of recurrent anemia 32.2%, followed by presumptive diagnosis of leukemia 27.7%. Normal marrow finding constituted 4.7%, while the diagnosis was inconclusive in 4.2% of the cases. The most frequently diagnosed diseases are the nutritional deficiency anemia together accounting for about one-third of the cases (megaloblastic anemia 20.3%, combined deficiency anemia 9.9%, and iron deficiency anemia 2.5%) and leukemia. Conclusion: Anemia and leukemia are the most common indication for BMA, and nutritional deficiency anemia is the major BMA diagnosis in Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria.

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