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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 107-112

Seroprevalence and factors associated with risk of human brucellosis among febrile patients attending health-care facilities in Bauchi, North-Eastern Nigeria


1 Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
4 Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
5 Department of Medical Microbiology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Hafiz Halilu
Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Abuja
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/atp.atp_39_20

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Background: Brucellosis is a neglected underdiagnosed zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution with varying symptoms similar to those occurring in other febrile illnesses. A recent screening survey conducted among butchers in Bauchi state reported a high prevalence of human brucellosis; however, its burden among patients with other febrile illnesses is unknown. We determine the seroprevalence and factors associated with risk of brucellosis among febrile patients attending health-care facilities (HCFs) in Bauchi metropolis, North-Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: We conducted a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study of 382 participants using a multistage sampling technique. Brucella antibodies were detected using Rose Bengal plate test, and a questionnaire was used to identify risk factors associated with human brucellosis. Data analyses were conducted using Epi Info version 7.0. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted at P = 0.05. Results: Fifty-seven (14.9%) of the 382 febrile patients tested had Brucella antibodies. Males: female ratio was 1.1:1, and the mean age was 29.9 (standard deviation 12.03). Age, sex, occupational status, keeping animals, having ever milked an animal, handling animals during birth, and consuming unpasteurized milk or meat were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis on bivariate analysis. Conclusions: Up to 14.9% of the febrile patients attending HCFs in Bauchi metropolis had Brucella antibodies. Age, occupational status, consuming unpasteurized milk or meat, handling animals during birth, and lack of awareness on zoonosis remained independent predictors for brucellosis. Therefore, conducting routine serological screening tests for Brucella antibodies in all febrile patients presenting to HCFs will assist in its diagnosis and proper management.


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