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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 155-160

Otorhinolaryngological manifestations of pediatric patients with sickle cell disease in Nguru, Nigeria

1 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
3 Department of Paediatrics, Federal Medical Centre, Nguru, Yobe State, Nigeria
4 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Federal Medical Centre, Nguru, Yobe State, Nigeria
5 Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ear Nose and Throat Unit, Nguru, Yobe State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aliyu Ahmadu Babadoko
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/atp.atp_27_18

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Background: Virtually no organ of the body is exempted from the effects of sickle cell disease (SCD) following repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion, infarction, and hemolysis leading to organ dysfunction. However, there is a dearth of data on the anatomic and functional changes of the ears, nose, and throat (ENT) in patients with SCD. Therefore, monitoring and evaluation of the effects of this disease on these organs will be defective due to the absence of baseline data necessary for institution of intervention programs and policy formulation. Aim: To review and determine the prevalence of the general anatomic changes and functional effects of SCD on the ENT in the pediatric age group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 52 children with SCD was carried out in 2018. Hematological parameters were determined while otolaryngoscopic examination and audiometric tests were conducted. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19 software, and Pearson's linear correlation statistical method was also employed and level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The mean age of the children was 8.81 ± 4.58 years. Excessive snoring was present in 28.8% (15) of the participants, of which 60% (9) had >75% occlusion of the nasopharynx. Recurrent ear discharge was seen in 21.2% of the participants. Conductive hearing loss (HL) was 9.6% and 7.7% for the right and left ears, respectively, while sensorineural HL was 13.5% and 3.8% for the right and left ears, respectively. Recurrent sore throat was recorded in 17.3% of the participants, while 73.1% had Brodsky Grade 1 tonsillar enlargement. Conclusion: Ear infections, HL, and tonsillar enlargement are common among pediatric patients with SCD. This may not be unconnected to inadequate clinical care due to lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and prophylaxis from infections.

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