Seroprevalence of HIV-1, hepatitis B and C viruses in sickle cell disease patients in Zaria, Nigeria
AA Babadoko1, AI Mamman1, ZY Aliyu2, SA Maude1, V Gordeuk3, V Sachdev4, P Akpanpe1, E Attah1, Y Suleiman1, N Aliyu1, J Yusuf1, L Mendelsohn5, GJ Kato3, MT Gladwin5
1 Ahmadu Bello University Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Centre for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia; Pulmonary and Vascular MedicineBranch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
3 Department of Medicine, Centre for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
4 Cardiology Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
5 Pulmonary and Vascular MedicineBranch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
A A Babadoko
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Transfusion of blood is an important and a frequent modality of treatment for either vaso-occlussive or haemolytic crisis in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Sickle cell disease patients are therefore at risk of transfusion transmissible infection,blood transfusion been a recognized route of transmission of HIV, Hepatitis Band C virus particularly in resource constraint settings lacking antigen detection techniques as well as an organized and effective blood transfusion services.
Aim: To determine the prevalence of HIV-1, Hepatitis B and C viral antibodies in patients with sickle cell disease.
Patients and Method: A cross sectional study of 208 consecutive SCD patients at steady state and 94 healthy non-matched controls were screened for HIV-1antibodies (parallel ELIZA Determine and Uni-Gold), Hepatitis B surface antigen (NOVA) and anti-HCV (NOVA) in 2006.
Results: Of the total number of 204 SCD patients screened, 102 (49%) were males and 106 (51%) were females .The mean age of the subjects was 22 ± 8 years. One hundred and nine patients (95.2%) were haemoglobin S homozygote's and 10 (4.8%) were compound heterozygote's for haemoglobin S and C. Ninety percent of the subjects reported less than 5 units of whole blood transfusion during their lifetime. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and C was 3.9%, 2.0% and 4.4% respectively.
Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and C is low in our setting and this may not be unconnected withroutine screening of prospective donors. However increased public awareness, health education programs and better screening techniques will further reduce the spread of these viruses, as other routes of transmission may also play a role.