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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 133-137

Cytological determination of condensed sex chromatin body in buccal smear and peripheral blood film using various nuclear staining techniques

1 Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Victor J Ekanem
Department of Pathology, University of Benin, Benin City
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Background Buccal smear and blood film examination for identification of condensed sex chromatin body is still being requested in hospitals in Nigeria for various reasons. Different hospitals use different staining techniques to aid in the identification. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the staining techniques that best identify the presence of sex chromatin among some commonly available dyes and also the usefulness of the method to the clinician. Method: One hundred and sixty – two apparently healthy female medical and medical laboratory students were recruited for the study. Buccal smear and blood film from the students were stained with cresyl violet, giemsa, papanicolaou and Haematoxylin and Eosin staining and leishman techniques. The slides were examined for the purpose of identifying the presence of sex chromatin body using light microscopy. The total number of barr bodies and drumsticks seen were recorded for each stain. Results: The highest number of barr bodies were seen in 47 (29%) slides out of the 162 slides stained with cresyl violet and examined for the presence of barr bodies, while slides stained with papanicolaou stain, Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin show the present of barr bodies in 41 (25.3%), 35 (21.6%) and 10 (6.2%) slides respectively. One hundred and twenty one blood films were examined with drum sticks seen in 50 (30.9%) of the slides examined. Conclusion: None of the stains used can best identify the presence of barr body in buccal smear. The usefulness of this test to the clinician is doubtful. A combination of buccal smear with blood film is therefore necessary to improve the diagnosis where other advance method of diagnosis is not available.

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